[Summary] dissemination of the Ming and Qing dynasties, Henan Shaolin Wushu living circumstances vary greatly. Ming Dynasty Songshan Shaolin Temple close ties with the government, while the commodity economy after the mid-Ming and commercial activities exist in some insecurity, Shaolin martial arts to stimulate people’s needs, so this period of Shaolin martial arts in the private sector to serve the country and services a broad space for been rapid development and spread eastward in Japan, up to the zenith, Shaolin martial arts can be described as the golden period of communication development. The Qing Dynasty is in contrast to the Government’s Shaolin Temple feel complaints, their
activities to the constraints of its martial arts, Shaolin martial arts for survival and development of the political means to be cut off; later due to China’s modernization factors, the only civilian market is also increasingly atrophy, Henan Shaolin martial arts of gloom and doom from. Shaolin martial arts from the Ming and Qing dynasties the development of two different living conditions can be seen that the rise and fall of Shaolin martial arts with a specific period of political, economic and social factors closely.
[Abstract Title] sports literature and history
[Keywords:] Ming and Qing Dynasties / Henan / Shaolin Martial Arts / living space
With the history of Shaolin temple in the name of that there were several, such as the Songshan Shaolin Temple in Henan, Hebei and Fujian Putian Shaolin Temple Shaolin Temple winding and so on, this article only the Songshan Shaolin Temple in Henan Province and the martial arts as a discussion object. Songshan Shaolin Temple in Dengfeng City, Henan Province is located in the northwest, perched between 5 Ru Feng, in the face Shaoshi Shan (Shaoshi Shan and Tai Room Songshan Mountain collectively known), the Department of the Northern Wei Emperor Xiaowen Wo twenty (496) for placement of Salmonella Ba Tuo was built Tianzhu and to give its ‘clothes for the public to’ ? very high socio-economic status. A result of the monastery at ‘a small room of the Lin’ ? , so as to Shaolin name. And the Shaolin martial arts form lasting bonds with you for two reasons: First, the Songshan Shaolin Temple is located in the deep mountain forest among wild beasts that haunt the troubled times it is banditry channeling volts. Harsh natural environment, which calls for the Shaolin monks must have a strong physique to survive self-defense. Second, where the Shaolin Temple in Dengfeng County, 7 towards the ancient capital of Kaifeng and Luoyang, the ancient capital of nine dynasties, between both the thoroughfare, there Songshan Xianai, troubled times are fought over. Department this environment, whether it is nursing home or a Methodist body, martial arts are essential because local martial arts has become a trend, Shaolin martial arts monks also follow the crowd. ? As the Songshan Shaolin Temple practice favorable conditions, your skills gradually to the superior, so Temple in order to force significantly, Wu to Temple members. Ran legendary Shaolin martial arts in the late Sui and early Tang dynasty. Sui Dynasty, Wang Shichong illegal number, monks Tan Zong, Hui-yang, etc. are owned by the Executive his nephew Ren Tang, Wang Shichong accelerated the demise of, for Emperor Taizong seal Tanzong for large general, frequency down-xi book awards Songshan Shaolin Temple, and thanks to its Bo Gu Chong to 40 ares, Shuinian 1. ? Since then, the Shaolin Temple embarked on the path of cooperation with the feudal government, the Shaolin martial arts also take this rapid development. Northern Song dynasty, the monks invited Fukui National 18 Qiecuo Wushu Shaolin martial arts masters of the General Assembly, and afterwards they sum up, absorb the Ge Jia, combining them with the theory of Shaolin martial arts, while the Northern Song Dynasty to make the medium-term maturity of printing a large number of available theoretical results possible. Shaolin martial arts theory, summary, publication of the Shaolin martial arts spread of the significance of the development of self-evident. Jin occasion, monks and martial arts expert on Jue Yuan Bai Yufeng the Shaolin boxing evolved from the 18 hand-dragon, tiger, leopard, snake, crane five boxing, ? turn Shaolin martial arts took a big step forward. Ming and Qing Dynasties is the Henan Shaolin martial arts in the history of an important period, on the situation in this period, scholars from the perspective of the history of many martial arts are discussed, ? on the Ming and Qing dynasties, however, the Shaolin martial arts and the evolution of living space there is still time to explore characteristics of the room. This paper on this issue to be looked at, the attempt by the Ming and Qing dynasties of Shaolin Martial Arts outlines the evolution of living space, Jie Ming Shaolin martial arts with a particular period of the rise and fall of political, economic, social and relationship between the defects and correction Prayer FANG .
1, Ming: Shaolin martial arts spread of the golden period of development
Ming Tai Zu Zhu Yuan know Buddhism and Taoism two to teach the role of the consolidation of the feudal rule that ‘the Buddha, sen ghosts, secretly helped Wang Gang, Masuyo infinite’ ? . While he uttered not a word regarding himself as a Monk, but as long as nine years (Yuan Shun, who favored to positive four years - twelve years ,1344 - 1352 Nian) ? career for the monks in their heart of hearts generated by the friendliness of Buddhism After all, hard to break away, so self-evident since the beginning, the Government will have added to the Songshan Shaolin Temple favor, and vigorously support. Hongwu the beginning of the Government’s financial constraints under which the still decide to rebuild the Songshan Shaolin Temple, meditation hall renovation, decoration statues. ? Taizu the preferential treatment of the Shaolin Temple, support policies inherited by their children and grandchildren, so the Ming Dynasty Songshan Shaolin Temple and the relationship between the government and the royal family has been very close. Jiajing Sanshiernian (1553) and Sanshiliunian, the Government in recognition of the anti-Shaolin monks ‘Japanese’ Mi disorder of power, two large-scale renovation of Songshan Shaolin Temple and rebuild Chuzu Temple hall. ? Wanli fifteen years (1587), Empress Dowager Ci Banci St. Songshan Shaolin Temple Tripitaka 637 letters, (11) while the Government has given poor food and other immunities and privileges of extraterritoriality. Government support for the development of Henan Shaolin Temple and its martial arts provides a good political environment, which quickly became the Songshan Shaolin Temple monks thousands of giant brake. (12)
In addition, the commodity currencies, after the mid-Ming economic development, commercial activities frequently, but it has also flourished under the many latent social conflicts and crises, such as transport and trade routes was the protection of property that is faced with many factors of insecurity, which in the name of Wen the world of the Shaolin martial arts services, civil society to create an opportunity. Thus, the Ming Dynasty, Henan Shaolin martial arts in the fight for government support, it is also actively adapt itself to the needs of society out of the gate, in serving the country, the dual path of civil service has achieved significant survival and development. A summary of the Ming Dynasty, Henan Shaolin Wushu spread of development are as follows:
- Serve the country
Songshan Shaolin Temple, the subject of frequent Feng Shang Ming court in this temple monks grateful. Therefore, when the country needs when they do not hesitate to monastic disciples of the martial arts to serve the country. Embodied in the following areas:
One is the suppression of volunteer army. The peasant uprising broke out, the Songshan Shaolin Temple are often involved in repression. If Masanori six years (1511) 300 Shaolin monk soldiers to participate in suppressing Liu 6, Liu seven uprising, dead more than 70. (13) the other is to resist intrusion. Masanori, when, in order to resist the Mongolian army south, Tsung-Chin Zhou help tune monks guarding the mountain, Shaanxi along the border, imperial seal have mentioned it as tone taking part, but also ordered its integrated military expedition to Yunnan rebel pretty. Because of its distinguished itself powerless in the face praise. Zhou was pregnant with ‘soft’ (as soft system just), ‘flash’ (or so flash oblique), ‘profit’ (the introduction of frustration) three kinds of stunts, known as ‘three strange monk’. Twenty-seven years after the death of Li Jiajing tower, Chik name ‘world opponents, the Church Monk’. (14) The third is meritorious frontier. The middle and late Ming, with the prosperity of commerce and industry, overseas trade frequently. The Government vigorously launched the seafaring prohibition, so that the southeast coast of the merchants engaged in overseas trade seriously affected the livelihood. At a time when Japanese local disputes, resulting in a large number of lonely warrior. Coastal traders and displaced persons in the effective use of Japan’s Ronin (15) to smash Ming Tinghai prohibited. In the course of confrontation with the government, the two sides of military conflicts are inevitable, and its activities, some of the robbers color is also very obvious, so they are also destructive to the southeast coastal region Needless to say, ‘plot bones of the body, such as hills, bleeding into the River’ (16) Although the record is suspected of exaggeration, but can also get a glimpse of, and therefore the Ming court dealt with severely. Drive out in the implementation of the process, because government troops were vulnerable, Jinglian ‘defeated by 37 troupes’. In desperation, Ming government only hopes recruiting and customer soldiers, Shaolin Monks is one of the objects of their recruitment. ‘South by a little’ set: ‘(Shaolin monk) days of the staff travel blending Tianchi, Caigong employment with the use of’, ‘member of the First World War in the days Weng Hong Kong, future battles on the white sandy beaches, more than 250 Japanese thief chopped mow exhaustive . ‘(17)’ Daily Understanding ‘set:’ Jiajing, the Shaolin monk on an empty table by the captaincy 10000 Gyok, Imperial Japanese in Songjiang, its believers for ministry since more than 30 weapons, kill pirates very minority, were killed. ‘(18) shows the Shaolin monk soldiers during the suppression of the so-called’ pirates’ and played a role.
- Civil Service
Appeared in the late Ming Dynasty in the ‘China Yang Gilman over the water, vulgar miscellaneous good, multi-Jia Zhi-sheng’ (19) business wave. Order to obtain greater business profits, some businessmen use of the time engaged in commercial lines has become a network of long-distance traffic in addition to blazing the hard way that business, the often encountered on the way to extortion, robbery and even killed other risks. If Hongzhi fifteen years (1502), South Zhili Wu County, Suzhou government servant, businessman YE Xiang and Ji-Ye to Songjiang business, those who commit murder when they were fiscal plans. (20) often unexpected from such risks, so businessmen shudder. Business passers-by to defuse the risk of self-defense martial arts and some businessmen. Mr. Wang Zhenzhong in the ‘Shaolin martial arts with the Huizhou Huizhou and the Ming and Qing Dynasties to repay society’ is an article on the Shaolin martial arts with a combination of commercial activities has been addressed. The paper quoted ‘pregnant with Autumn collection’ in the Wanli period recorded in the South Zhili Xiuning County man is such a pregnant Zong initiative of the Huizhou merchants Shaolin stunts. Zong initiatives, the word red bucket, youth, ‘ancestors 3000 to pay’ orders to go out of their business, natural impulse is to bring money to the Big Dipper, Henan Songshan Shaolin Temple to learn martial arts, under the tutelage of Hung Chi, Hung turn, were like, Zong Dai and other martial arts 10 years, the Shaolin martial arts in particular, are reaching superb stick work. Songshan Shaolin Temple because of the financial resources of a post-exhaustion, fear of blame and fear of his grandfather owned, after the father of Qian Ren back. After their father’s re-financingrelying on his way to Beijing to do business face ring Horse Thief, red fighting the enemy alone dozens of people to safety, forcing the financial resources of Great Outlaws will be returned. (21), another Ming Cheng Huizhou Prefecture Xiuning County businessman is also a martial arts Tianchong strength, often day ‘and the City, Hamby Huo’, night martial arts. Day ‘and various hou brothers try sword school shooting, Qunying salt set, is an examination of the Prancing Horse 3, are consistent in Hu Ge, Henin-Hardenne (Xiuning County in the Western Jin Dynasty Emperor Tai Hong-year period had one Haining - cited by Note) Zhu Wu Yin Xian tongue pushing wheel ‘(22). But not all merchants have these stunts, so to prevent the mishap is the majority of employment Biaoshi peddler practices. Due to a ‘world outof the Shaolin martial arts’ is said, so pregnant with the Shaolin martial arts are often the first choice when traders hiring Biaoshi.
In addition, the mid-Ming various social contradictions and complexity of the increasingly dominant, social unrest, and people’s lives and property can not be guaranteed, a number of bureaucratic Tomimuro often employed as a bodyguard or Jueyi pregnant or nursing homes after the house. If Chongzhen House Shan Zhou, Henan, when made known once the state Historical Records ‘employ less room Monk Training (had raised persons)’ (23), and used as bodyguards. In folk terms for self-defense martial arts is also a trend, when the spring is the result of human Cao ‘Office, bullying the weak and violent widowed village’, for ‘Wei body
exteriors’ (24), learning of the Shaolin martial arts.
- Mingyang Japan
Ping ‘Japanese’ War, the famous Chi Chi order to facilitate the training of soldiers fighting soldiers, the ability to short, from the private 16 Shaolin boxing boxing in particular, select 32 positions be combined regimen boxing spectrum ‘punch through’ as a textbook. Book Wanli Dong Chuan, Japan, by Japanese Wushu Jie attention to promote the development of Japanese martial arts. (25) had Wanli Sishiyinian Songshan Shaolin Temple martial arts into a year-long Hangzhou Yuan Yun Chan, Japan, Emperor Go-Sai Wan Zhi-year period (equivalent to Junji twelve - fourteen years ,1658 - 1660 Nian ) The identity of Ming Dynasty moved to Japan, (26) in order to teach boxing and Jiemon Ronin Miura, Isogai Jirozaemono, Fukuno Shichiroemon et al (27). After the Japanese martial arts home in Passing the torch, the lessons Chen Chuan Shaolin Wushu and help you in traditional Jiu-Jitsu. Chen Yuan Yun’s Leg 3 is still being regarded as a Japanese judo
originated, its effect in Japan can be seen here. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download
- Writing scene
Shaolin stick is a stick forefront of this trend is a sign of Shaolin martial arts weapons, after the mid-Ming, and Dah-Yu Zong initiatives have made outstanding contributions to its development. Yu Dayou famous master cudgel, with a ‘sword after’ (in this ‘sword’ to ‘stick’ of the meaning). Jiajing he had to the Songshan Shaolin Temple, Shaolin stick work that the ‘mass a long time while the correct and true tactics are lost’. After the request to be abbot of the hill, professors, monks were from the Qing and the S &amp; P cudgel. In Yu’s careful guidance, the two monks superb stick work. After the ‘Pu into a foreign body from the’, but tactics were widely spread Qing-zhen, monks, so that Shaolin stick work refreshing. (28) above Zong initiatives in the Songshan Shaolin Temple martial arts more than ten years, reached a pinnacle stick work, after his learning and experience of his life by summarizing written ‘Shaolin stick work illustrates cases’ a book. (29)
This period and later, summed up the works introduced the Shaolin martial arts continue to emerge, in addition to the above-mentioned Chi Chi’s’ punch through ‘, Yu Dayou’s’ sword through the’ Zong initiative of the ‘Shaolin stick work illustrates cases’, there is Mao Yuan Yi’s’ Wubei Chi ‘in the content, TANG Shun of the’ Wu compiled ‘and the Shaolin monks Hung-turn’ Dream Green Hall marksmanship ‘and so on. Shaolin martial arts and publishing a summary of the theory is a Shaolin martial arts growing maturity. At that time due to technological advances and the engraving, prints the form of widespread use of visual performance was illustrated according to the present study would, as Zong initiative goes, ‘Shuji a high-profile between the situation in plain, Biren people can self-division Cloud ear’ (30), which broke through the Shaolin martial arts mode of transmission constraints on the words and deeds, easy to spread Shaolin martial arts to wider and deeper.
To sum up we can see that due to the Songshan Shaolin Temple and the Ming Government has established a close political relationship, communication development, Shaolin martial arts is not only there is no political obstacles, but also under the aegis of the government to obtain broad political space. The mid-Ming and the active business activities, internal and external problems interwoven social situation, so that the real function of Shaolin martial arts highlight an unprecedented, multi-path communication development, expansion, and thus this period of martial men, theoretical writings and intricate, and traveling at sea, spread eastward Japan, the Shaolin martial arts gradually to flourish.
Second, the Qing Dynasty: Shaolin martial arts, living space on Organization, declining gradually Many early Qing Ming Dynasty Dunji Shaolin, the Qing government Yuanyou in mind this is strictly prohibited monks martial arts, (31) while enhancing its hosted control over the appointment of the provisions of the review must accept the Board of Rites, to Sapporo for the photo. (32) and early Qing dynasties including Tamashi Branch, belatedly Jisho, resulting in lack of food due to the large number of monks to flee, resulting in ‘live Shou no 12’. Eighteen years until the reign of Emperor Kangxi (1679), the Songshan Shaolin Temple is still decadent like, ‘bad trips bee wall, and air court Gou shortage of pheasants’ (33), monasteries messy, near-obsolete.
Although the Qing government was to consolidate its rule, the attitude has changed, which we also add repair, but the alert, there is always fear of the heart. Voluminous historical materials such as the Qing Dynasty, it is difficult Songshan Shaolin Monks ‘battlefield are difficult to financial worries, to defend the removal of Wang Shi’ (34) records, some of the blame only on monks. This is a reflection of the Qing government in this state of mind. Thirteen years as Emperor Yongzheng (1753) rebuilt the Songshan Shaolin Temple, the King Sejong had to denounce the monks ‘more does not observe clear rules, Wang Xing trouble, in order to address the kinds of doors defeat’ (35). Qianlong four decades (1775), Emperor’s also firmly opposed to the governor of Henan Shaolin Monks Xu Ji hired to teach martial arts to the barracks in the practice of art: ‘the monks not only by the monk, shall abide by clear rules, in order to soft insults mainly for the blow How can we allow Xi thorn, good-Yong trying to flaunt? The responsibility to those who have a place to hear it, when trying to nurture, how to switch incur taught, so that sales of its technology or Down? Education and learning the business and in order to soldiers, monks, both non-physical, and people transmission of jokes, Xu Xiao Ji why not do if this. The Chuan Yu Shen ordered, and to make the call addressed to the monk that is sent back row. ‘(36) shown by the Qing government
such mentality, which means the value of the thrust of Shaolin martial arts activities from the political arena fade away, leaving only space for civil society in this activity. Qing Shaolin martial arts to serve civil society, much the same way as the Ming Dynasty, mainly in the following areas:
- Bodyguards escort
In the latter part of traditional Chinese society, be regarded as the end of the original concept of the commercial industry, a gradual change in the traditional Si-min Gao Ren, their profits are for everyone to see, and thus become increasingly music career. Ran at the time of the traffic conditions and social security conditions, the business risk is high. For example, when Kangxi to a nickname the old claw thief gang headed by businessmen on the constriction to kill countless buried (37). In order to reduce and resolve business passers-risk, similar to the Ming Dynasty Qing Dynasty merchant’s use of countermeasures, some salesmen, martial arts self-defense, but more is to hire Biaoshi case something happens. As the reputation of Shaolin kung fu, going equipped for the Shaolin martial arts were still employed Biaoshi choice. Such as ‘clear copy barnyard class’ contained in the Sun-yu Zeng Xi-Quan Gong Shaolin Temple 17
in Songshan, in the final after the merchants employ their care dart. (38) In addition, the prevailing social security environment, the individual’s life and property can not be effectively protected, social unrest during the more prominent this issue. If there is barefoot in Taihu Lake Qing Zhang San and other daytime robbery, kidnapping and Jin gentry, the rich, demanding huge sums of money, night, burning, killing and intimidation of those who were right Bushi Xiang, so Jin Ju-room gentry were gripped with horror. (39) for the entire life insurance money after the rich businessmen and wealthy landlords, bureaucrats, like, always beware of robbers robbery, often spared no expense to hire a bodyguard martial arts, high-strength view home care homes, you can guess the Shaolin martial arts master’s bodyguards will be of great market .
- Civil Communication Arts
Songshan Shaolin Temple held a grudge against the Qing rulers, forcing monks mass exodus. One of the monks or Biaoshi, or coach, or Luocaoweikou or entertainer for a living. Such as the Qing state of Jiading County, Jiangsu Taicang YIP Hung-ju had a decade into the Songshan Shaolin Temple martial arts, in the final after the setting and apprentices, (40) This option is safe and well-paid, is an important way to the survival of Shaolin martial arts. There are also some Shaolin monks living on a street entertainer. ‘Qing Echinochloa class
copy’ contains a Shaolin monks bring believers into the South China Sea, a living selling Quanbang. (41) Songshan Shaolin Temple, thousands of miles away from the South China Sea, in the means of transport developed extremely sleepy times and leisure activities, teacher and student were relying on entertainer bare foot was removed to be within reason, its field-based entertainer, when a certain number of onlookers This approach has played an objective role in promoting Shaolin martial arts. Qing Shaolin monks went so far come to the street entertainer’s Jiongju, reflecting the worth of Shaolin martial arts to the Qing Dynasty after the crash out of the situation when the scenery does not exist.
- Fitness Yannian
Shaolin martial arts fitness is a very important social function. According to ‘clear barnyard type copy’ contains a Guzhe to the Songshan Shaolin Temple invited industry to coin 500 thrown Shaoshi Shan monks allowed to look for, look for the rear foot to arts legend. Guzhe secretly to explore, are beginning to have derived from the plot to 499, so desperately search the last one. Day suddenly got his wish, a burst of ecstasy, eyes ton Ming, so by the art away. Another one who also holds the lower limb paralysis health and fitness goals to Temple apprenticeship. (42) to the Qing Dynasty spread Shaolin martial arts, survival of the space, is fading political future, leaving only a passer-by civil society has failed to properly expand, their survival, development space significantly narrower than the Ming Dynasty, ran to the Qing dynasty since the mid - especially the late Qing Dynasty, with China’s modernization caused by social change, in particular, modern transportation, communications, finance and other industries, so that the original narrow spread Shaolin martial arts increasingly squeezed space, more atrophy. Such as the emergence of native and ticket number, customers can pay and display to the associate opened at designated locations are silver, is easy and safe, those who hire Biaoshi dropped, (43) Shaolin martial arts gradually withdraw from the commercial area of bodyguards. Hot weapon on the modern application of widespread, gradual loss of Shaolin martial arts tactical significance, real function of an unprecedented weakening. The development of modern medicine to Shaolin martial arts, fitness room is subject to certain challenges. In the Qing government alienation, constraints, and modernization of factors of exclusion, and squeezed under the combined effect of factors such as the Qing Dynasty Shaolin martial arts, the decline is the inevitable trend. Compared with the Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty Shaolin martial arts is not only all uncommon, and the Shaolin martial arts theory, the quantity and quality of work can not be compared, such as Wu Shu’s ‘arm was recorded’ and CAO Huan Dou’s ‘fist by fist prepared to be’, etc. Most of is a replica of the Ming Dynasty work, which is an indirect reflection of the decline of the Qing Dynasty Shaolin martial arts and less prosperity. Until after the failure of the Boxer movement, many martial arts, technology armed even lost due to neglect.
To sum, the overall development of Shaolin martial arts experience from totally dependent on government support to gradually move toward self-seeking survival of historical process. Integration is to say, out of the temple, service people is a Shaolin martial arts to survive the Ming and Qing dynasties, the development of common characteristics. Ran on the specific terms of the Shaolin martial arts in the Ming and Qing dynasties the survival, development and there a huge difference in the situation. Ming Dynasty is the golden period of development of Shaolin martial arts, this time the close relationship between the Songshan Shaolin Temple with the government, a vast living space. Shaolin Wushu performance of communication development as the main way in order to serve the country-based, service people, supplemented with distinct political overtones. The situation is in contrast to the Qing dynasty, the Qing government and the Songshan Shaolin Temple, the relationship between the relative distance, there are restrictions on their activities to their martial arts, Shaolin martial arts dissemination, development of the political means have been cut off; survival services, the only space of civil also because of China’s modernization of the role of specific factors such as increasing Zhaixia. In particular, in 1928 when warlord warlord Feng Yu-xiang SHI You-three men sent troops burning temple, the fire burn even 45 days and nights, the main temple buildings have been destroyed, (44) Shaolin martial arts have been mistaken for vampires and the pace of decline accelerated, not brilliant. From the Ming and Qing dynasties, Henan Shaolin Wushu development, survival circumstances in Shaolin martial arts, survival, development, and a specific period of political, economic and social factors are closely related.
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